Welcome to Basketball News' 10-part mini-series, Blazing the
Trail, where Mat Issa breaks down the most revolutionary players of
the 1990s and 2000s. Throughout this series, we'll examine how
these players changed basketball and pioneered their respective
In this seventh installment, Mat goes in-depth on the
offensive splendor of Dirk Nowitzki. He explains what made Nowitzki
the first full-fledged unicorn, with insights from former Dallas
Mavericks coaches Dwane Casey and Brad Davis, and former teammates
Adrian Griffin and Greg Buckner.
In Volume Two of Blazing the Trail,
we discussed the progression of the stretch 4 through the lens of
Rashard Lewis. Our decision to use his career as our case study
left a few people wondering this:
While Dirk Nowitzki was a proficient three-point marksman in his
own right, the 7-foot German star never even averaged 5 three-point
attempts per game. On the other hand, Lewis eclipsed this per-game
total five times in his career.
But Nowitzki was still revolutionary. After all, he was the
game’s first true unicorn.
What does that even mean exactly? Let’s find out.
WHAT MADE NOWITZKI SPECIAL?
Contrary to public opinion, Nowitzki did not earn his
designation as a mythical beast overnight. Like the evolution of a
Charmander to a Charizard, his
metamorphosis was a three-step process.
Stage 1: The Play Finisher (2001-04)
In the early chapters of Nowitzki’s prime, he operated a lot
like Lewis, playing off-ball next to an on-ball creator (in
Nowitzki’s case, Steve Nash). During this period,
a large portion of his shot diet consisted of corner threes,
pick-and-pops and jumpers coming off of pindown screens.
Thanks to his table-setting companion, young Nowitzki had the
opportunity to steadily acclimate himself to the rigors of the
postseason, posting 25.6 points per game on 58.0% True Shooting in
his first 40 playoff appearances.
Stage 2: The Isolationist (2005-07)
Once Nash (and later Michael Finley) left town, Nowitzki’s
self-creation burden increased. His percentage of assisted two- and
three-pointers decreased from 67.0% and 97.0% in 2003-04 to 49.1%
and 80.2% in 2004-05, per Basketball-Reference. Those uncontested
catch-and-shoot jumpers turned into arduous post-up and isolation
This role change had little bearing on his team’s regular-season
performance, as few rosters touted the personnel to match
Nowitzki's outlier size and ball skills. These weaker defenders
allowed Dallas to hide the deficiencies in Nowitzki’s
“He won MVP [in 2007] because they had big, slow dummies
guarding him, and he would just abuse those guys," said Buckner, a
Cleveland Cavaliers assistant coach and former teammate of
Nowitzki. "He wasn’t quite comfortable posting up at the time, and
we weren’t quite comfortable posting him.”
Nowitzki's shortcomings in that area manifested themselves when
the Mavericks were matched up against opponents with the tools or,
as Buckner calls it, “the cheat code” for slowing down his former
For a while, it was believed this code merely consisted of
enlisting lengthy, athletic forwards to shadow him. However,
Nowitzki eviscerated both Shawn Marion’s Phoenix Suns and Bruce
Bowen’s San Antonio Spurs to the tune of 27.2 points per game on
58.9% True Shooting in 19 games during that stretch.
So the secret for containing this 7-foot Pegasus was that you
needed to both field rangy forwards and exploit Dallas’ weaknesses:
poor passing and spacing.
If codified, the pamphlet for slowing down Nowitzki would read
something like this:
1) Aggressively front the post to force the Mavericks'
lackluster facilitators into difficult entries (Nowitzki — an
average passer at best — was the team’s best passer in 2005-06,
according to Ben Taylor’s Passer
2) If Nowitzki does receive the pass, overload the paint with
defenders because the Mavericks don’t have the shooting to burn you
(they ranked No. 21 in three-pointers made in 2005-06).
3) Be physical with him to exploit the deficiencies in his
post-up game, and catch his spin move to disrupt his balance and
Here are some examples of teams using those amendments:
From 2005 to 2007, the Houston Rockets, Miami Heat and Golden
State Warriors followed these instructions, holding Nowitzki to
21.3 points per game on 50.3% True Shooting in 19 games.
Stage 3: The On/Off-Ball Hybrid (2008-11)
After multiple playoff disappointments, narratives began
matriculating about the likelihood — or rather unlikelihood — of
reaching the promised land with Nowitzki as your centerpiece. The
old "you-can’t-win-with-an-offensively-oriented-big-man" take
machine reared its ugly head.
In a quest for redemption, Nowitzki doubled down on his training
and completely revamped his diet following the 2006-07 season.
“What he did was he went back home to Germany and worked on [his
post game] and made sure that shit didn’t happen again,” Buckner
Back in Germany, Nowitzki worked relentlessly alongside his
trainer Holger Geschwindner in order to add counters to his
mid-post game (e.g. his patented one-legged fadeaway).
Under Geschwindner's tutelage, Nowitzki’s regimen was, to say
the least, unconventional.
“He did some of the damnedest workout routines,” joked Dwane
Casey, the current head coach of the Detroit Pistons and a former
Mavericks assistant. “He really didn’t lift a lot of weights, but
he did a lot of bodyweight-type exercises — standing on one leg,
doing headstands and striding the length of the court. Doing all
different things, and I think out of that, he developed that
Even more important than their atypical routines, Geschwindner
emphasized situational training to help Nowitzki prepare for the
in-game playoff situations he had faltered in before.
“He didn’t just put up shots. He was getting game [repetitions],
so by the time the game would come around, he already had his
timing,” said Toronto Raptors assistant coach and Nowitzki's former
teammate Adrian Griffin. "[Nowitzki and Geschwindner] worked on a
lot of game situational moves and sequences...
"It’s popular in sports psychology, the visualization of putting
yourself in situations so that you’re comfortable when [they] come.
Your mind already has experience being in that situation, so it
knows how to perform and recall those movements that you need. From
a sports-psychology perspective, they were probably ahead of the
But Griffin believes there was a second catalyst to Nowitzki’s
mid-post growth: 1-on-1 sessions with longtime Mavericks assistant
and player development specialist Brad Davis.
“He would take the things he was learning [with Geschwindner],
and he would transfer that over to the 1-on-1 setting with
[Davis],” Griffin explained. “So he had the perfect combination of
working on his physical skills and his mental skills.”
“I used to get really physical with [Nowitzki], down in the
mid-post,” Davis explained to Basketball News. “Lean on him, push
him a bit, make him take some tough shots and let him go both ways.
We went through a little bit of everything.”
In 2007-08, Nowitzki's hard work paid off and he was ready to
conquer his past demons.
And conquer he did.
Nowitzki had reached his full form, and there wasn’t a soul on
the planet who was capable of stopping him during his killer
postseason attack from 2008 to 2011. During that span (42 games),
Nowitzki scored 27.2 points per game on an illustrious 61.7% True
- First clip: Nowitzki counters
the New Orleans Hornets' full fronting tactics with the basketball
equivalent of jousting for position. This off-ball work enabled him
to free himself for an easy jumper.
- Second clip: The Portland Trail
Blazers overload the paint on him, so rather than venture into the
eye of the storm, he pulls out that aforementioned one-legged
- Third clip: Russell Westbrook
tries to dig down on his drive to disrupt his timing, but Nowitzki
immediately responds with a kick-out pass to his open teammate
- Fourth clip: The Denver Nuggets
get cute with a sneak-attack double team, but Nowitzki senses the
defender coming and sprays the ball over to Jason Terry for three
Nowitzki had become scheme-proof. No matter the situation, he
had a counter for whatever defensive coverage his opponent employed
And with that, the unicorn had finally emerged.
Visual Provided by Luceo
So what exactly is a "unicorn" anyways?
Oxford Languages describes this term as “something that is
highly desirable but difficult to find or obtain.”
Nowitzki was a rarity at his time because he was an efficient
big man who also wielded the much-heralded "bag" that often gets
discussed today. In his essence, he was equipped with all the
tricks that made us fall in love with the late, great Kobe
“I guarded Kobe Bryant many times,” Griffin recalled. “He was
the same, had all the tricks — like [Nowitzki].”
Both embraced the mid-post as their personal torture chamber. It
was an art they mastered after their superstar teammates left them
to fend for themselves (in Bryant’s case, this maturation took
place after the departure of Shaquille O’Neal).
While they shared similarities, they were obviously different
players. Where Bryant’s 6-foot-6 frame made elevating over the
wings and forwards who guarded him a laborious task, Nowitzki could
loft his jumper over anyone.
“It was impossible to block [Nowitzki's] shot. No one could get
to his shot,” Griffin laughed. “Not only did he have the height as
an advantage... he had a high release on top of that.”
To visualize this, take a look at the differences in degree of
difficulty on the fall-away jumpers of Bryant and Nowitzki. (Note:
They were both the same age in these clips; Bryant was contested by
6-foot-5 DeShawn Stevenson while Nowitzki is guarded by 6-foot-7
Metta World Peace):
Not only was Bryant forced to initially give the ball up to gain
better position, but Stevenson was able to get much closer to the
apex of his jumper than World Peace was with Nowitzki's.
To quantify Nowitzki's elevation, ESPN Sports Science once did a
segment on his fadeaway. There, they explained that
even if an individual had Yao Ming’s 7-foot-6 height coupled with
prime Derrick Rose’s vertical pop, they still couldn’t challenge
Remember, in basketball, the most efficient offenses aren’t
typically the ones that make the toughest shots; they are the ones
that generate the most high-quality attempts. That’s why during
their peak playoff years (which coincidentally coincided), not only
did Nowitzki nearly match Bryant’s scoring volume, he did so on an
efficiency that was over five percentage points higher.
Visual Provided by Luceo
Nowitzki outdueled arguably one of the greatest scorers ever,
and he did it by becoming something we had seldomly seen before
WEAVING THE THREAD
In a 2022 interview with Sports
Illustrated’s Howard Beck, Nowitzki named Toni Kukoc and Detlef
Schrempf as the two players who paved the way for his path to
Kukoc was a precursor to the point-forward model that eventually
became commonplace in today’s NBA. His combination of size and
face-up acumen is easily apparent in Nowitzki’s
However, Nowitzki’s mid-post game — the core subject of our
analysis — was born from watching the original German
“He mentioned the fact he watched [Schrempf] as a young player,”
Casey explained. “People don’t know this, but before [Nowitzki],
[Schrempf] was the man in Germany.”
Casey even mentioned that coaching Schrempf in Seattle as an
assistant under George Karl helped him to better serve
Nowitzki during their time together in Dallas from 2008 to
Ironically, Schrempf was originally skeptical of Nowitzki’s
ability to act as the torchbearer for their country.
“I remember talking to [Schrempf] about [Nowitzki], and
[Schrempf] said, ‘Oh, he’s just a young German kid. I don’t know if
he is going to be anything or not,'” Casey said.
As fate would have it, the student surpassed the master and
achieved a feat that his predecessor never accomplished: winning an
NBA championship. And while Schrempf’s teams in Seattle were
consistent title contenders,
they didn't get the job done.
Schrempf was a supremely talented scorer, but his efficiency
waned a bit during the postseason. In his career, he lost nearly
2.5 percentage points on his True Shooting percentage in the
Schrempf never had a Geschwindner in his corner to help groom
him for these big moments. He never added the bevy of counters that
vaulted Nowitzki into the pantheon of scorers. He never graduated
to full-fledged unicorn status.
IMPACT ON TODAY'S GAME
Without a doubt, the most salient feature of Nowitzki’s
carefully crafted mid-post arsenal was his famed one-legged
fadeaway. An unguardable move that was once only achievable by
Nowitzki has now been reproduced and rebranded by some of the best
scorers in today’s game.
“It’s funny…you see so many players today doing the one-legged
[fadeaway] that [Nowitzki] perfected,” Casey reflected.
Arguably chief among his fall-away followers is the four-time
scoring champion Kevin Durant. According to Marc Stein, while still in
Oklahoma City, Durant hired Adam Harrington — who played with
Nowitzki and studied under Geschwindner — to be his shooting coach
and put him through a modified version of Nowitzki’s routine (and
it looks like KD got his return on that investment).
Along with Durant, the two other offensive supernovas dawning
the unicorn mantle are Karl-Anthony Towns and Nikola Jokic. Towns,
of course, has not shied away from the
parallels between him and Nowitzki. Meanwhile, Jokic has
established himself as the premier post-up presence in the game
today, leading the league in points per possession (1.17) among
players with at least two post-ups per game.
Unfortunately, both bigs have fallen victim to the fallacies
that plagued Nowitzki during his playing time. Surface-level
narratives about the impossibility of building championship-level
defenses next to Towns and Jokic have become common criticisms.
Casey, the defensive coordinator of the 2011 NBA champion
Mavericks, disagrees with this assessment.
“No question,” he told Basketball News when asked if he thought
Dallas' defensive infrastructure was replicable in today’s
Casey prescribed tactics like hedging ball-screens, scram switching and pre-switching to help remedy any
attempts at exploiting the mobility of these big men.
There's no question that unicorns like Nowitzki are an
infrequent breed, but they are not a dying one. His legacy lives on
in the hearts of the skilled 7-footers that inhibit today’s
And thanks to his story of perseverance, they now have a pathway
to becoming NBA champions.
Tune in next week for Part VIII of Blazing the Trail, which
focuses on Anfernee Hardaway, the floor giant.
Click Here to read Part VI:
Shawn Kemp, the aerial artist
Click Here to read Part V:
Andrei Kirilenko, the five-tool defender
Click here to read Part IV:
Reggie Miller, the moving target
Click here to read Part III:
Shane Battier, the data-ball defender
Click here to read Part II:
Rashard Lewis, the All-Star stretch 4
Click here to read Part
I: Steve Nash, the magician who danced in the